Python tutorials for Business Analyst – Python Directory and Files Management

Hits: 30

(Python Tutorial – 029)

Python Directory and Files Management

In this tutorial, you’ll learn about file and directory management in Python, i.e. creating a directory, renaming it, listing all directories, and working with them.

Python Directory

If there are a large number of files to handle in our Python program, we can arrange our code within different directories to make things more manageable.

A directory or folder is a collection of files and subdirectories. Python has the os module that provides us with many useful methods to work with directories (and files as well).

 


Get Current Directory

We can get the present working directory using the getcwd() method of the os module.

This method returns the current working directory in the form of a string. We can also use the getcwdb() method to get it as bytes object.

>>> import os

>>> os.getcwd()
'C:\Program Files\PyScripter'

>>> os.getcwdb()
b'C:\Program Files\PyScripter'

The extra backslash implies an escape sequence. The print() function will render this properly.

>>> print(os.getcwd())
C:Program FilesPyScripter

Changing Directory

We can change the current working directory by using the chdir() method.

The new path that we want to change into must be supplied as a string to this method. We can use both the forward-slash / or the backward-slash  to separate the path elements.

It is safer to use an escape sequence when using the backward slash.

>>> os.chdir('C:\Python33')

>>> print(os.getcwd())
C:Python33

List Directories and Files

All files and sub-directories inside a directory can be retrieved using the listdir() method.

This method takes in a path and returns a list of subdirectories and files in that path. If no path is specified, it returns the list of subdirectories and files from the current working directory.

>>> print(os.getcwd())
C:Python33

>>> os.listdir()
['DLLs',
'Doc',
'include',
'Lib',
'libs',
'LICENSE.txt',
'NEWS.txt',
'python.exe',
'pythonw.exe',
'README.txt',
'Scripts',
'tcl',
'Tools']

>>> os.listdir('G:\')
['$RECYCLE.BIN',
'Movies',
'Music',
'Photos',
'Series',
'System Volume Information']

Making a New Directory

We can make a new directory using the mkdir() method.

This method takes in the path of the new directory. If the full path is not specified, the new directory is created in the current working directory.

>>> os.mkdir('test')

>>> os.listdir()
['test']

Renaming a Directory or a File

The rename() method can rename a directory or a file.

For renaming any directory or file, the rename() method takes in two basic arguments: the old name as the first argument and the new name as the second argument.

>>> os.listdir()
['test']

>>> os.rename('test','new_one')

>>> os.listdir()
['new_one']

Removing Directory or File

A file can be removed (deleted) using the remove() method.

Similarly, the rmdir() method removes an empty directory.

>>> os.listdir()
['new_one', 'old.txt']

>>> os.remove('old.txt')
>>> os.listdir()
['new_one']

>>> os.rmdir('new_one')
>>> os.listdir()
[]

Note: The rmdir() method can only remove empty directories.

In order to remove a non-empty directory, we can use the rmtree() method inside the shutil module.

>>> os.listdir()
['test']

>>> os.rmdir('test')
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
OSError: [WinError 145] The directory is not empty: 'test'

>>> import shutil

>>> shutil.rmtree('test')
>>> os.listdir()
[]

Personal Career & Learning Guide for Data Analyst, Data Engineer and Data Scientist

Applied Machine Learning & Data Science Projects and Coding Recipes for Beginners

A list of FREE programming examples together with eTutorials & eBooks @ SETScholars

95% Discount on “Projects & Recipes, tutorials, ebooks”

Projects and Coding Recipes, eTutorials and eBooks: The best All-in-One resources for Data Analyst, Data Scientist, Machine Learning Engineer and Software Developer

Topics included: Classification, Clustering, Regression, Forecasting, Algorithms, Data Structures, Data Analytics & Data Science, Deep Learning, Machine Learning, Programming Languages and Software Tools & Packages.
(Discount is valid for limited time only)

Disclaimer: The information and code presented within this recipe/tutorial is only for educational and coaching purposes for beginners and developers. Anyone can practice and apply the recipe/tutorial presented here, but the reader is taking full responsibility for his/her actions. The author (content curator) of this recipe (code / program) has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of the information was correct at time of publication. The author (content curator) does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability to any party for any loss, damage, or disruption caused by errors or omissions, whether such errors or omissions result from accident, negligence, or any other cause. The information presented here could also be found in public knowledge domains.

Learn by Coding: v-Tutorials on Applied Machine Learning and Data Science for Beginners

Please do not waste your valuable time by watching videos, rather use end-to-end (Python and R) recipes from Professional Data Scientists to practice coding, and land the most demandable jobs in the fields of Predictive analytics & AI (Machine Learning and Data Science).

The objective is to guide the developers & analysts to “Learn how to Code” for Applied AI using end-to-end coding solutions, and unlock the world of opportunities!

 

Python Example – Write a Python program to list all files in a directory in Python

Learn Java by Example: Java Program to Create Directories

Kotlin example for Beginners – Kotlin Program to Get Current Working Directory