# Insertion into a B-tree

#### In this tutorial, you will learn how to insert a key into a btree. Also, you will find working examples of inserting keys into a B-tree in Python.

Inserting an element on a B-tree consists of two events: **searching the appropriate node** to insert the element and **splitting the node** if required.Insertion operation always takes place in the bottom-up approach.

Let us understand these events below.

## Insertion Operation

- If the tree is empty, allocate a root node and insert the key.
- Update the allowed number of keys in the node.
- Search the appropriate node for insertion.
- If the node is full, follow the steps below.
- Insert the elements in increasing order.
- Now, there are elements greater than its limit. So, split at the median.
- Push the median key upwards and make the left keys as a left child and the right keys as a right child.
- If the node is not full, follow the steps below.
- Insert the node in increasing order.

## Insertion Example

Let us understand the insertion operation with the illustrations below.

The elements to be inserted are 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 23.

## Algorithm for Inserting an Element

```
BreeInsertion(T, k)
r root[T]
if n[r] = 2t - 1
s = AllocateNode()
root[T] = s
leaf[s] = FALSE
n[s] <- 0
c1[s] <- r
BtreeSplitChild(s, 1, r)
BtreeInsertNonFull(s, k)
else BtreeInsertNonFull(r, k)
BtreeInsertNonFull(x, k)
i = n[x]
if leaf[x]
while i ≥ 1 and k < keyi[x]
keyi+1 [x] = keyi[x]
i = i - 1
keyi+1[x] = k
n[x] = n[x] + 1
else while i ≥ 1 and k < keyi[x]
i = i - 1
i = i + 1
if n[ci[x]] == 2t - 1
BtreeSplitChild(x, i, ci[x])
if k &rt; keyi[x]
i = i + 1
BtreeInsertNonFull(ci[x], k)
BtreeSplitChild(x, i)
BtreeSplitChild(x, i, y)
z = AllocateNode()
leaf[z] = leaf[y]
n[z] = t - 1
for j = 1 to t - 1
keyj[z] = keyj+t[y]
if not leaf [y]
for j = 1 to t
cj[z] = cj + t[y]
n[y] = t - 1
for j = n[x] + 1 to i + 1
cj+1[x] = cj[x]
ci+1[x] = z
for j = n[x] to i
keyj+1[x] = keyj[x]
keyi[x] = keyt[y]
n[x] = n[x] + 1
```

## Python Examples

```
/* Inserting a key on a B-tree in Python */
/* Create a node */
class BTreeNode:
def __init__(self, leaf=False):
self.leaf = leaf
self.keys = []
self.child = []
/* Tree */
class BTree:
def __init__(self, t):
self.root = BTreeNode(True)
self.t = t
/* Insert node */
def insert(self, k):
root = self.root
if len(root.keys) == (2 * self.t) - 1:
temp = BTreeNode()
self.root = temp
temp.child.insert(0, root)
self.split_child(temp, 0)
self.insert_non_full(temp, k)
else:
self.insert_non_full(root, k)
/* Insert nonfull */
def insert_non_full(self, x, k):
i = len(x.keys) - 1
if x.leaf:
x.keys.append((None, None))
while i >= 0 and k[0] < x.keys[i][0]:
x.keys[i + 1] = x.keys[i]
i -= 1
x.keys[i + 1] = k
else:
while i >= 0 and k[0] < x.keys[i][0]:
i -= 1
i += 1
if len(x.child[i].keys) == (2 * self.t) - 1:
self.split_child(x, i)
if k[0] > x.keys[i][0]:
i += 1
self.insert_non_full(x.child[i], k)
/* Split the child */
def split_child(self, x, i):
t = self.t
y = x.child[i]
z = BTreeNode(y.leaf)
x.child.insert(i + 1, z)
x.keys.insert(i, y.keys[t - 1])
z.keys = y.keys[t: (2 * t) - 1]
y.keys = y.keys[0: t - 1]
if not y.leaf:
z.child = y.child[t: 2 * t]
y.child = y.child[0: t - 1]
/* Print the tree */
def print_tree(self, x, l=0):
print("Level ", l, " ", len(x.keys), end=":")
for i in x.keys:
print(i, end=" ")
print()
l += 1
if len(x.child) > 0:
for i in x.child:
self.print_tree(i, l)
def main():
B = BTree(3)
for i in range(10):
B.insert((i, 2 * i))
B.print_tree(B.root)
if __name__ == '__main__':
main()
```

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