# How to do Linear Exponential Smoothing model using lynx dataset – Time Series Forecasting

Linear Exponential Smoothing (LES) is a technique used to forecast future values of a time series. It is a simple method that can be applied to a wide range of time series data, such as sales, traffic, weather, and more.

One of the datasets that can be used for LES model is lynx dataset which has historical data of the number of lynx trappings in Canada between 1821 and 1934. The goal of using LES model on lynx dataset is to predict the number of lynx trappings in future years.

The process of building a LES model typically involves the following steps:

**Collecting and cleaning the data:** This includes acquiring the lynx dataset and preparing it for analysis.

**Decomposition of time series:** This step is optional but it is useful to understand the trend, seasonality and residual components of the time series.

**Choosing an appropriate model:** LES model is a linear model that considers the trend and seasonality of the time series. It is possible to use different models for different types of data.

**Training the model:** This includes estimating the parameters of the model, such as the smoothing coefficients, using the historical data.

**Forecasting:** This includes using the trained model to predict future values of the time series, such as the number of lynx trappings in future years.

**Evaluation:** This includes evaluating the model’s performance on a separate test dataset and comparing it to other models or to a baseline.

It is important to note that time series forecasting is a complex task and there are many factors that can affect the accuracy of the forecasts. Additionally, LES model is a simple model that works well when the data is relatively stable and there is no major change in the data trend or seasonality. Therefore, it’s important to keep in mind that the predictions made by the LES model are only as accurate as the data it is trained on, and may not reflect the true conditions in the future.

Overall, LES model is a simple and powerful technique for time series forecasting and it can be applied to a wide range of datasets like lynx. By understanding the trend and seasonality of the time series data, the LES model can provide accurate predictions for future values. However, it’s important to use appropriate techniques and to keep in mind that the predictions made by the model are only as accurate as the data it is trained on.

In this Applied Machine Learning & Data Science Recipe (Jupyter Notebook), the reader will find the practical use of applied machine learning and data science in R programming: How to do Linear Exponential Smoothing model using lynx dataset – Time Series Forecasting.

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