Hits: 43 Interpreting Data Using Descriptive Statistics with R Introduction Descriptive Statistics is the foundation block of summarizing data. It is divided into the measures of central tendency and the measures of dispersion. Measures of central tendency include mean, median, and the mode, while the measures of variability include standard deviation, variance, and the …

Hits: 116 R Scatter Plot – ggplot2 A scatter plot is a graphical display of relationship between two sets of data. They are good if you to want to visualize how two variables are correlated. That’s why they are also called correlation plot. Create a Scatter Plot To get started with plot, you need …

Hits: 159 R Quantile-Quantile (QQ) Plot – Base Graph Sometimes it’s important to know whether the data is normally distributed. A quantile-quantile plot (QQ plot) is a good first check. It shows the distribution of the data against the expected normal distribution. If the data is normally distributed, the points fall on the 45° reference …

Hits: 12 R Pie Chart – Base Graph A Pie Chart is a special chart that shows relative sizes of data using pie slices. They are good if you are trying to compare parts of a single data series to the whole. The pie() function In R, you can create a pie chart using the pie() function. …

Hits: 16 R Histogram – Base Graph A Histogram is a graphical display of continuous data using bars of different heights. It is similar to a bar graph, except a histogram groups the data into bins. The height of each bar shows the number of elements in the bin. They are a great way to …

Hits: 56 R Box-whisker Plot – Base Graph The box-whisker plot (or a boxplot) is a quick and easy way to visualize complex data where you have multiple samples. A box plot is a good way to get an overall picture of the data set in a compact manner. The boxplot() function You can use …

Hits: 96 R Scatter Plot – Base Graph A scatter plot is a graphical display of relationship between two sets of data. They are good if you to want to visualize how two variables are correlated. That’s why they are also called correlation plot. The plot() function The basic plot() function is a generic function that can …

Hits: 37 R plot() Function An effective and accurate data visualization is an important part of a statistical analysis. It can make your data come to life and convey your message in a powerful way. R has very strong graphics capabilities that can help you visualize your data. The plot() function In R, the base …

Hits: 13 Read and Write Excel Files in R Excel is the most popular spreadsheet software used to store tabular data. So, it’s important to be able to efficiently import and export data from these files. R’s xlsx package makes it easy to read, write, and format excel files. The xlsx Package The xlsx package provides necessary …

Hits: 610 Read and Write CSV Files in R One of the easiest and most reliable ways of getting data into R is to use CSV files. The CSV file (Comma Separated Values file) is a widely supported file format used to store tabular data. It uses commas to separate the different values in a line, where …

Hits: 11 R Apply Family Loops (like for, while and repeat) are a way to repeatedly execute some code. However, they are often slow in execution when it comes to processing large data sets. R has a more efficient and quick approach to perform iterations – The apply family. Apply family in R The apply family consists of vectorized functions. …

Hits: 5 R Functions In simple terms, a function is a block of statements that can be used repeatedly in a program. R provides many built-in functions and allows programmers to define their own functions. Syntax Here’s the syntax of a function in R: Create a Function To define a function in R, use the function command and assign …

Hits: 3 R Repeat Loop A repeat loop just repeats a block of code indefinitely. In this loop, no condition checking is performed in order to end the loop. To stop repeating the loop, you must put a condition explicitly inside it with break statement. Failing to do so will create an infinite/endless loop. Syntax Here’s the syntax of …

Hits: 5 R For Loop The for statement in R is a bit different from what you usually use in other programming languages. Rather than iterating over a numeric progression, R’s for statement iterates over the items of a vector or a list. The items are iterated in the order that they appear in the vector. Syntax Here’s the syntax of the for statement: …

Hits: 2 R While Loop A while loop is used when you want to perform a task indefinitely, until a particular condition is met. It’s a condition-controlled loop. Syntax Here’s the syntax of the while statement: Basic Examples Any non-zero value or nonempty container is considered TRUE; whereas Zero, None, and empty container is considered FALSE. # Iterate until …

Hits: 12 R if else elseif Statement Often, you need to execute some statements only when some condition is met. You can use following conditional statements in your code to do this. if Statement: use it to execute a block of code, if a specified condition is true else Statement: use it to execute a block of …

Hits: 2 R Factor In real-world problems, you often encounter data that can be classified in categories. For example, suppose a survey was conducted of a group of seven individuals, who were asked to identify their hair color and gender. The result might appear as follows: Name Hair color Gender Amy Blonde Female Bob Black …

Hits: 4 R Data Frame Suppose you want to store the names of your employees, their age and addresses all in one dataset. The first thing that readily comes to mind is Matrix. But you can’t combine all this data in one matrix without converting it to character data. So, you need a new data structure …