## (R Tutorials for Citizen Data Scientist)

## Beginners tutorial with R – Arrays

Arrays are the R data objects which can store data in more than two dimensions. For example − If we create an array of dimension (2, 3, 4) then it creates 4 rectangular matrices each with 2 rows and 3 columns. Arrays can store only data type.

An array is created using the **array()** function. It takes vectors as input and uses the values in the **dim** parameter to create an array.

## Example

The following example creates an array of two 3×3 matrices each with 3 rows and 3 columns.

# Create two vectors of different lengths. vector1 <- c(5,9,3) vector2 <- c(10,11,12,13,14,15) # Take these vectors as input to the array. result <- array(c(vector1,vector2),dim = c(3,3,2)) print(result)

When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −

, , 1 [,1] [,2] [,3] [1,] 5 10 13 [2,] 9 11 14 [3,] 3 12 15 , , 2 [,1] [,2] [,3] [1,] 5 10 13 [2,] 9 11 14 [3,] 3 12 15

## Naming Columns and Rows

We can give names to the rows, columns and matrices in the array by using the **dimnames** parameter.

# Create two vectors of different lengths. vector1 <- c(5,9,3) vector2 <- c(10,11,12,13,14,15) column.names <- c("COL1","COL2","COL3") row.names <- c("ROW1","ROW2","ROW3") matrix.names <- c("Matrix1","Matrix2") # Take these vectors as input to the array. result <- array(c(vector1,vector2),dim = c(3,3,2),dimnames = list(row.names,column.names, matrix.names)) print(result)

When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −

, , Matrix1 COL1 COL2 COL3 ROW1 5 10 13 ROW2 9 11 14 ROW3 3 12 15 , , Matrix2 COL1 COL2 COL3 ROW1 5 10 13 ROW2 9 11 14 ROW3 3 12 15

## Accessing Array Elements

# Create two vectors of different lengths. vector1 <- c(5,9,3) vector2 <- c(10,11,12,13,14,15) column.names <- c("COL1","COL2","COL3") row.names <- c("ROW1","ROW2","ROW3") matrix.names <- c("Matrix1","Matrix2") # Take these vectors as input to the array. result <- array(c(vector1,vector2),dim = c(3,3,2),dimnames = list(row.names, column.names, matrix.names)) # Print the third row of the second matrix of the array. print(result[3,,2]) # Print the element in the 1st row and 3rd column of the 1st matrix. print(result[1,3,1]) # Print the 2nd Matrix. print(result[,,2])

When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −

COL1 COL2 COL3 3 12 15 [1] 13 COL1 COL2 COL3 ROW1 5 10 13 ROW2 9 11 14 ROW3 3 12 15

## Manipulating Array Elements

As array is made up matrices in multiple dimensions, the operations on elements of array are carried out by accessing elements of the matrices.

# Create two vectors of different lengths. vector1 <- c(5,9,3) vector2 <- c(10,11,12,13,14,15) # Take these vectors as input to the array. array1 <- array(c(vector1,vector2),dim = c(3,3,2)) # Create two vectors of different lengths. vector3 <- c(9,1,0) vector4 <- c(6,0,11,3,14,1,2,6,9) array2 <- array(c(vector1,vector2),dim = c(3,3,2)) # create matrices from these arrays. matrix1 <- array1[,,2] matrix2 <- array2[,,2] # Add the matrices. result <- matrix1+matrix2 print(result)

When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −

[,1] [,2] [,3] [1,] 10 20 26 [2,] 18 22 28 [3,] 6 24 30

## Calculations Across Array Elements

We can do calculations across the elements in an array using the **apply()** function.

### Syntax

apply(x, margin, fun)

Following is the description of the parameters used −

**x**is an array.**margin**is the name of the data set used.**fun**is the function to be applied across the elements of the array.

### Example

We use the apply() function below to calculate the sum of the elements in the rows of an array across all the matrices.

# Create two vectors of different lengths. vector1 <- c(5,9,3) vector2 <- c(10,11,12,13,14,15) # Take these vectors as input to the array. new.array <- array(c(vector1,vector2),dim = c(3,3,2)) print(new.array) # Use apply to calculate the sum of the rows across all the matrices. result <- apply(new.array, c(1), sum) print(result)

When we execute the above code, it produces the following result −

, , 1 [,1] [,2] [,3] [1,] 5 10 13 [2,] 9 11 14 [3,] 3 12 15 , , 2 [,1] [,2] [,3] [1,] 5 10 13 [2,] 9 11 14 [3,] 3 12 15 [1] 56 68 60

## Beginners tutorial with R – Arrays

Disclaimer: The information and code presented within this recipe/tutorial is only for educational and coaching purposes for beginners and developers. Anyone can practice and apply the recipe/tutorial presented here, but the reader is taking full responsibility for his/her actions. The author (content curator) of this recipe (code / program) has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of the information was correct at time of publication. The author (content curator) does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability to any party for any loss, damage, or disruption caused by errors or omissions, whether such errors or omissions result from accident, negligence, or any other cause.The information presented here could also be found in public knowledge domains.

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