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# Python Operators

Operators are used to perform operations on values and variables. The Python operators are classified into seven different categories:

- Arithmetic operators
- Assignment operators
- Comparison operators
- Logical operators
- Identity operators
- Membership operators
- Bitwise operators

## Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators are used to perform simple mathematical operations on numeric values (except complex).

Operator | Meaning | Example |

+ | Addition | x + y |

– | Subtraction | x – y |

* | Multiplication | x * y |

/ | Division | x / y |

% | Modulus | x % y |

** | Exponentiation | x ** y |

// | Floor division | x // y |

Here are some examples:

```
x = 6
y = 2
# addition
print(x + y) # 8
# subtraction
print(x - y) # 4
# multiplication
print(x * y) # 12
# division
print(x / y) # 3
# modulus
print(x % y) # 0
# exponentiation
print(x ** y) # 36
# floor division
print(x // y) # 3
```

For additional numeric operations see the math module.

## Assignment Operators

Assignment operators are used to assign new values to variables.

Operator | Meaning | Example | Equivatent to |

= | Assignment | x = 3 | x = 3 |

+= | Addition assignment | x += 3 | x = x + 3 |

-= | Subtraction assignment | x -= 3 | x = x – 3 |

*= | Multiplication assignment | x *= 3 | x = x * 3 |

/= | Division assignment | x /= 3 | x = x / 3 |

%= | Modulus assignment | x %= 3 | x = x % 3 |

//= | Floor division assignment | x //= 3 | x = x // 3 |

**= | Exponentiation assignment | x **= 3 | x = x ** 3 |

&= | Bitwise AND assignment | x &= 3 | x = x & 3 |

|= | Bitwise OR assignment | x |= 3 | x = x | 3 |

^= | Bitwise XOR assignment | x ^= 3 | x = x ^ 3 |

>>= | Bitwise right shift assignment | x >>= 3 | x = x >> 3 |

<<= | Bitwise left shift assignment | x <<= 3 | x = x << 3 |

## Comparison Operators

Comparison operators are used to compare two values.

Operator | Meaning | Example |

== | Equal to | x == y |

!= | Not equal to | x != y |

> | Greater than | x > y |

< | Less than | x < y |

>= | Greater than or equal to | x >= y |

<= | Less than or equal to | x <= y |

Here are some examples:

```
x = 6
y = 2
# equal to
print(x == y) # False
# not equal to
print(x != y) # True
# greater than
print(x > y) # True
# less than
print(x < y) # False
# greater than or equal to
print(x >= y) # True
# less than or equal to
print(x <= y) # False
```

## Logical Operators

Logical operators are used to join two or more conditions.

Operator | Description | Example |

and | Returns True if both statements are true | x > 0 and y < 0 |

or | Returns True if one of the statements is true | x > 0 or y < 0 |

not | Reverse the result, returns False if the result is true | not(x > 0 and y < 0) |

Here are some examples:

```
x = 2
y = -2
# and
print(x > 0 and y < 0) # True
# or
print(x > 0 or y < 0) # True
# not
print(not(x > 0 and y < 0)) # False
```

## Identity Operators

Identity operators are used to check if two objects point to the same object, with the same memory location.

Operator | Description | Example |

is | Returns true if both variables are the same object | x is y |

is not | Returns true if both variables are not the same object | x is not y |

Here are some examples:

```
x = [1, 2, 3]
y = [1, 2, 3]
# is
print(x is y) # False
# is not
print(x is not y) # True
```

## Membership Operators

Membership operators are used to check if a specific item is present in a **sequence** (such as a string, tuple, list, or range) or a **collection** (such as a dictionary, set, or frozen set).

Operator | Description | Example |

in | Returns True if a value is present in the sequence | x in y |

not in | Returns True if a value is not present in the sequence | x not in y |

Here are some examples:

```
L = ['red', 'green', 'blue']
# in
print('red' in L) # True
# not in
print('yellow' not in L) # True
```

## Bitwise Operators

Binary operators are used to perform bit-level operations on (binary) numbers.

Operator | Meaning | Example |

& | AND | x & y |

| | OR | x | y |

^ | XOR | x ^ y |

~ | NOT | ~x |

<< | Left shift | x << 2 |

>> | Right shift | x >> 2 |

Here are some examples:

```
x = 0b1100
y = 0b1010
# and
print(bin(x & y)) # 0b1000
# or
print(bin(x | y)) # 0b1110
# xor
print(bin(x ^ y)) # 0b0110
# not
print(bin(~x)) # -0b1101
# shift 2 bits left
print(bin(x << 2)) # 0b1100
# shift 2 bits right
print(bin(x >> 2)) # 0b0011
```

## Operator Precedence (Order of Operations)

In Python, every operator is assigned a precedence. Operator Precedence determines which operations are performed before which other operations.

Operators of highest precedence are performed first. Any operators of equal precedence are performed in left-to-right order.

Precedence | Operator | Description |

lowest precedence | or | Boolean OR |

and | Boolean AND | |

not | Boolean NOT | |

==, ! =, <, <=, >, >=, is, is not | comparisons, identity | |

| | bitwise OR | |

^ | bitwise XOR | |

& | bitwise AND | |

<<, >> | bit shis | |

+, – | addition, subtraction | |

*, /, //, % | multiplication, division, floor division, modulo | |

+x, -x, ~x | unary positive, unary negation, bitwise negation | |

highest precedence | ** | exponentiation |

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