Algorithm in C – Full Binary Tree

Full Binary Tree


In this tutorial, you will learn about full binary tree and its different theorems. Also, you will find working examples to check full binary tree in C.

A full Binary tree is a special type of binary tree in which every parent node/internal node has either two or no children.

It is also known as a proper binary tree.

full binary tree
Full Binary Tree

Full Binary Tree Theorems

Let, i = the number of internal nodes
       n = be the total number of nodes
       l = number of leaves
      λ = number of levels
  1. The number of leaves is i + 1.
  2. The total number of nodes is 2i + 1.
  3. The number of internal nodes is (n – 1) / 2.
  4. The number of leaves is (n + 1) / 2.
  5. The total number of nodes is 2l – 1.
  6. The number of internal nodes is l – 1.
  7. The number of leaves is at most 2λ - 1.


C Examples

The following code is for checking if a tree is a full binary tree.

// Checking if a binary tree is a full binary tree in C

#include <stdbool.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

struct Node {
  int item;
  struct Node *left, *right;

// Creation of new Node
struct Node *createNewNode(char k) {
  struct Node *node = (struct Node *)malloc(sizeof(struct Node));
  node->item = k;
  node->right = node->left = NULL;
  return node;

bool isFullBinaryTree(struct Node *root) {
  // Checking tree emptiness
  if (root == NULL)
    return true;

  // Checking the presence of children
  if (root->left == NULL && root->right == NULL)
    return true;

  if ((root->left) && (root->right))
    return (isFullBinaryTree(root->left) && isFullBinaryTree(root->right));

  return false;

int main() {
  struct Node *root = NULL;
  root = createNewNode(1);
  root->left = createNewNode(2);
  root->right = createNewNode(3);

  root->left->left = createNewNode(4);
  root->left->right = createNewNode(5);
  root->left->right->left = createNewNode(6);
  root->left->right->right = createNewNode(7);

  if (isFullBinaryTree(root))
    printf("The tree is a full binary treen");
    printf("The tree is not a full binary fulln");

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