Algorithm in C – Deletion from a B+ Tree

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Deletion from a B+ Tree

 

In this tutorial, you will learn about deletion operation on a B+ tree. Also, you will find working examples of deleting elements from a B+ tree in C.

Deleting an element on a B+ tree consists of three main events: searching the node where the key to be deleted exists, deleting the key and balancing the tree if required.Underflow is a situation when there is less number of keys in a node than the minimum number of keys it should hold.


Deletion Operation

Before going through the steps below, one must know these facts about a B+ tree of degree m.

  1. A node can have a maximum of m children. (i.e. 3)
  2. A node can contain a maximum of m - 1 keys. (i.e. 2)
  3. A node should have a minimum of ⌈m/2⌉ children. (i.e. 2)
  4. A node (except root node) should contain a minimum of ⌈m/2⌉ - 1 keys. (i.e. 1)

 

While deleting a key, we have to take care of the keys present in the internal nodes (i.e. indexes) as well because the values are redundant in a B+ tree. Search the key to be deleted then follow the following steps.

Case I

The key to be deleted is present only at the leaf node not in the indexes (or internal nodes). There are two cases for it:

  1. There is more than the minimum number of keys in the node. Simply delete the key.
    Delete a key from a B+tree
    Deleting 40 from B-tree
  2. There is an exact minimum number of keys in the node. Delete the key and borrow a key from the immediate sibling. Add the median key of the sibling node to the parent.
    Delete a key from a B+tree
    Deleting 5 from B-tree

Case II

The key to be deleted is present in the internal nodes as well. Then we have to remove them from the internal nodes as well. There are the following cases for this situation.

  1. If there is more than the minimum number of keys in the node, simply delete the key from the leaf node and delete the key from the internal node as well.
    Fill the empty space in the internal node with the inorder successor.

    Delete a key from a B+tree
    Deleting 45 from B-tree
  2. If there is an exact minimum number of keys in the node, then delete the key and borrow a key from its immediate sibling (through the parent).
    Fill the empty space created in the index (internal node) with the borrowed key.

    Delete a key from a B+tree
    Deleting 35 from B-tree
  3. This case is similar to Case II(1) but here, empty space is generated above the immediate parent node.
    After deleting the key, merge the empty space with its sibling.
    Fill the empty space in the grandparent node with the inorder successor.

    Delete a key from a B+tree
    Deleting 25 from B-tree

Case III

In this case, the height of the tree gets shrinked. It is a little complicated.Deleting 55 from the tree below leads to this condition. It can be understood in the illustrations below.

Delete a key from a B+tree
Deleting 55 from B-tree

C Examples

// Deletion on a B+ Tree in C

#include <stdbool.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>

// Default order
#define ORDER 3

typedef struct record {
  int value;
} record;

// Node
typedef struct node {
  void **pointers;
  int *keys;
  struct node *parent;
  bool is_leaf;
  int num_keys;
  struct node *next;
} node;

int order = ORDER;
node *queue = NULL;
bool verbose_output = false;

// Enqueue
void enqueue(node *new_node);

// Dequeue
node *dequeue(void);
int height(node *const root);
int pathToLeaves(node *const root, node *child);
void printLeaves(node *const root);
void printTree(node *const root);
void findAndPrint(node *const root, int key, bool verbose);
void findAndPrintRange(node *const root, int range1, int range2, bool verbose);
int findRange(node *const root, int key_start, int key_end, bool verbose,
        int returned_keys[], void *returned_pointers[]);
node *findLeaf(node *const root, int key, bool verbose);
record *find(node *root, int key, bool verbose, node **leaf_out);
int cut(int length);

record *makeRecord(int value);
node *makeNode(void);
node *makeLeaf(void);
int getLeftIndex(node *parent, node *left);
node *insertIntoLeaf(node *leaf, int key, record *pointer);
node *insertIntoLeafAfterSplitting(node *root, node *leaf, int key,
                   record *pointer);
node *insertIntoNode(node *root, node *parent,
           int left_index, int key, node *right);
node *insertIntoNodeAfterSplitting(node *root, node *parent,
                   int left_index,
                   int key, node *right);
node *insertIntoParent(node *root, node *left, int key, node *right);
node *insertIntoNewRoot(node *left, int key, node *right);
node *startNewTree(int key, record *pointer);
node *insert(node *root, int key, int value);

// Enqueue
void enqueue(node *new_node) {
  node *c;
  if (queue == NULL) {
    queue = new_node;
    queue->next = NULL;
  } else {
    c = queue;
    while (c->next != NULL) {
      c = c->next;
    }
    c->next = new_node;
    new_node->next = NULL;
  }
}

// Dequeue
node *dequeue(void) {
  node *n = queue;
  queue = queue->next;
  n->next = NULL;
  return n;
}

// Print the leaves
void printLeaves(node *const root) {
  if (root == NULL) {
    printf("Empty tree.n");
    return;
  }
  int i;
  node *c = root;
  while (!c->is_leaf)
    c = c->pointers[0];
  while (true) {
    for (i = 0; i < c->num_keys; i++) {
      if (verbose_output)
        printf("%p ", c->pointers[i]);
      printf("%d ", c->keys[i]);
    }
    if (verbose_output)
      printf("%p ", c->pointers[order - 1]);
    if (c->pointers[order - 1] != NULL) {
      printf(" | ");
      c = c->pointers[order - 1];
    } else
      break;
  }
  printf("n");
}

// Calculate height
int height(node *const root) {
  int h = 0;
  node *c = root;
  while (!c->is_leaf) {
    c = c->pointers[0];
    h++;
  }
  return h;
}

// Get path to root
int pathToLeaves(node *const root, node *child) {
  int length = 0;
  node *c = child;
  while (c != root) {
    c = c->parent;
    length++;
  }
  return length;
}

// Print the tree
void printTree(node *const root) {
  node *n = NULL;
  int i = 0;
  int rank = 0;
  int new_rank = 0;

  if (root == NULL) {
    printf("Empty tree.n");
    return;
  }
  queue = NULL;
  enqueue(root);
  while (queue != NULL) {
    n = dequeue();
    if (n->parent != NULL && n == n->parent->pointers[0]) {
      new_rank = pathToLeaves(root, n);
      if (new_rank != rank) {
        rank = new_rank;
        printf("n");
      }
    }
    if (verbose_output)
      printf("(%p)", n);
    for (i = 0; i < n->num_keys; i++) {
      if (verbose_output)
        printf("%p ", n->pointers[i]);
      printf("%d ", n->keys[i]);
    }
    if (!n->is_leaf)
      for (i = 0; i <= n->num_keys; i++)
        enqueue(n->pointers[i]);
    if (verbose_output) {
      if (n->is_leaf)
        printf("%p ", n->pointers[order - 1]);
      else
        printf("%p ", n->pointers[n->num_keys]);
    }
    printf("| ");
  }
  printf("n");
}

// Find the node and print it
void findAndPrint(node *const root, int key, bool verbose) {
  node *leaf = NULL;
  record *r = find(root, key, verbose, NULL);
  if (r == NULL)
    printf("Record not found under key %d.n", key);
  else
    printf("Record at %p -- key %d, value %d.n",
         r, key, r->value);
}

// Find and print the range
void findAndPrintRange(node *const root, int key_start, int key_end,
             bool verbose) {
  int i;
  int array_size = key_end - key_start + 1;
  int returned_keys[array_size];
  void *returned_pointers[array_size];
  int num_found = findRange(root, key_start, key_end, verbose,
                returned_keys, returned_pointers);
  if (!num_found)
    printf("None found.n");
  else {
    for (i = 0; i < num_found; i++)
      printf("Key: %d   Location: %p  Value: %dn",
           returned_keys[i],
           returned_pointers[i],
           ((record *)
            returned_pointers[i])
             ->value);
  }
}

// Find the range
int findRange(node *const root, int key_start, int key_end, bool verbose,
        int returned_keys[], void *returned_pointers[]) {
  int i, num_found;
  num_found = 0;
  node *n = findLeaf(root, key_start, verbose);
  if (n == NULL)
    return 0;
  for (i = 0; i < n->num_keys && n->keys[i] < key_start; i++)
    ;
  if (i == n->num_keys)
    return 0;
  while (n != NULL) {
    for (; i < n->num_keys && n->keys[i] <= key_end; i++) {
      returned_keys[num_found] = n->keys[i];
      returned_pointers[num_found] = n->pointers[i];
      num_found++;
    }
    n = n->pointers[order - 1];
    i = 0;
  }
  return num_found;
}

// Find the leaf
node *findLeaf(node *const root, int key, bool verbose) {
  if (root == NULL) {
    if (verbose)
      printf("Empty tree.n");
    return root;
  }
  int i = 0;
  node *c = root;
  while (!c->is_leaf) {
    if (verbose) {
      printf("[");
      for (i = 0; i < c->num_keys - 1; i++)
        printf("%d ", c->keys[i]);
      printf("%d] ", c->keys[i]);
    }
    i = 0;
    while (i < c->num_keys) {
      if (key >= c->keys[i])
        i++;
      else
        break;
    }
    if (verbose)
      printf("%d ->n", i);
    c = (node *)c->pointers[i];
  }
  if (verbose) {
    printf("Leaf [");
    for (i = 0; i < c->num_keys - 1; i++)
      printf("%d ", c->keys[i]);
    printf("%d] ->n", c->keys[i]);
  }
  return c;
}

record *find(node *root, int key, bool verbose, node **leaf_out) {
  if (root == NULL) {
    if (leaf_out != NULL) {
      *leaf_out = NULL;
    }
    return NULL;
  }

  int i = 0;
  node *leaf = NULL;

  leaf = findLeaf(root, key, verbose);

  for (i = 0; i < leaf->num_keys; i++)
    if (leaf->keys[i] == key)
      break;
  if (leaf_out != NULL) {
    *leaf_out = leaf;
  }
  if (i == leaf->num_keys)
    return NULL;
  else
    return (record *)leaf->pointers[i];
}

int cut(int length) {
  if (length % 2 == 0)
    return length / 2;
  else
    return length / 2 + 1;
}

record *makeRecord(int value) {
  record *new_record = (record *)malloc(sizeof(record));
  if (new_record == NULL) {
    perror("Record creation.");
    exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
  } else {
    new_record->value = value;
  }
  return new_record;
}

node *makeNode(void) {
  node *new_node;
  new_node = malloc(sizeof(node));
  if (new_node == NULL) {
    perror("Node creation.");
    exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
  }
  new_node->keys = malloc((order - 1) * sizeof(int));
  if (new_node->keys == NULL) {
    perror("New node keys array.");
    exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
  }
  new_node->pointers = malloc(order * sizeof(void *));
  if (new_node->pointers == NULL) {
    perror("New node pointers array.");
    exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
  }
  new_node->is_leaf = false;
  new_node->num_keys = 0;
  new_node->parent = NULL;
  new_node->next = NULL;
  return new_node;
}

node *makeLeaf(void) {
  node *leaf = makeNode();
  leaf->is_leaf = true;
  return leaf;
}

int getLeftIndex(node *parent, node *left) {
  int left_index = 0;
  while (left_index <= parent->num_keys &&
       parent->pointers[left_index] != left)
    left_index++;
  return left_index;
}

node *insertIntoLeaf(node *leaf, int key, record *pointer) {
  int i, insertion_point;

  insertion_point = 0;
  while (insertion_point < leaf->num_keys && leaf->keys[insertion_point] < key)
    insertion_point++;

  for (i = leaf->num_keys; i > insertion_point; i--) {
    leaf->keys[i] = leaf->keys[i - 1];
    leaf->pointers[i] = leaf->pointers[i - 1];
  }
  leaf->keys[insertion_point] = key;
  leaf->pointers[insertion_point] = pointer;
  leaf->num_keys++;
  return leaf;
}

node *insertIntoLeafAfterSplitting(node *root, node *leaf, int key, record *pointer) {
  node *new_leaf;
  int *temp_keys;
  void **temp_pointers;
  int insertion_index, split, new_key, i, j;

  new_leaf = makeLeaf();

  temp_keys = malloc(order * sizeof(int));
  if (temp_keys == NULL) {
    perror("Temporary keys array.");
    exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
  }

  temp_pointers = malloc(order * sizeof(void *));
  if (temp_pointers == NULL) {
    perror("Temporary pointers array.");
    exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
  }

  insertion_index = 0;
  while (insertion_index < order - 1 && leaf->keys[insertion_index] < key)
    insertion_index++;

  for (i = 0, j = 0; i < leaf->num_keys; i++, j++) {
    if (j == insertion_index)
      j++;
    temp_keys[j] = leaf->keys[i];
    temp_pointers[j] = leaf->pointers[i];
  }

  temp_keys[insertion_index] = key;
  temp_pointers[insertion_index] = pointer;

  leaf->num_keys = 0;

  split = cut(order - 1);

  for (i = 0; i < split; i++) {
    leaf->pointers[i] = temp_pointers[i];
    leaf->keys[i] = temp_keys[i];
    leaf->num_keys++;
  }

  for (i = split, j = 0; i < order; i++, j++) {
    new_leaf->pointers[j] = temp_pointers[i];
    new_leaf->keys[j] = temp_keys[i];
    new_leaf->num_keys++;
  }

  free(temp_pointers);
  free(temp_keys);

  new_leaf->pointers[order - 1] = leaf->pointers[order - 1];
  leaf->pointers[order - 1] = new_leaf;

  for (i = leaf->num_keys; i < order - 1; i++)
    leaf->pointers[i] = NULL;
  for (i = new_leaf->num_keys; i < order - 1; i++)
    new_leaf->pointers[i] = NULL;

  new_leaf->parent = leaf->parent;
  new_key = new_leaf->keys[0];

  return insertIntoParent(root, leaf, new_key, new_leaf);
}

node *insertIntoNode(node *root, node *n,
           int left_index, int key, node *right) {
  int i;

  for (i = n->num_keys; i > left_index; i--) {
    n->pointers[i + 1] = n->pointers[i];
    n->keys[i] = n->keys[i - 1];
  }
  n->pointers[left_index + 1] = right;
  n->keys[left_index] = key;
  n->num_keys++;
  return root;
}

node *insertIntoNodeAfterSplitting(node *root, node *old_node, int left_index,
                   int key, node *right) {
  int i, j, split, k_prime;
  node *new_node, *child;
  int *temp_keys;
  node **temp_pointers;

  temp_pointers = malloc((order + 1) * sizeof(node *));
  if (temp_pointers == NULL) {
    exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
  }
  temp_keys = malloc(order * sizeof(int));
  if (temp_keys == NULL) {
    exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
  }

  for (i = 0, j = 0; i < old_node->num_keys + 1; i++, j++) {
    if (j == left_index + 1)
      j++;
    temp_pointers[j] = old_node->pointers[i];
  }

  for (i = 0, j = 0; i < old_node->num_keys; i++, j++) {
    if (j == left_index)
      j++;
    temp_keys[j] = old_node->keys[i];
  }

  temp_pointers[left_index + 1] = right;
  temp_keys[left_index] = key;

  split = cut(order);
  new_node = makeNode();
  old_node->num_keys = 0;
  for (i = 0; i < split - 1; i++) {
    old_node->pointers[i] = temp_pointers[i];
    old_node->keys[i] = temp_keys[i];
    old_node->num_keys++;
  }
  old_node->pointers[i] = temp_pointers[i];
  k_prime = temp_keys[split - 1];
  for (++i, j = 0; i < order; i++, j++) {
    new_node->pointers[j] = temp_pointers[i];
    new_node->keys[j] = temp_keys[i];
    new_node->num_keys++;
  }
  new_node->pointers[j] = temp_pointers[i];
  free(temp_pointers);
  free(temp_keys);
  new_node->parent = old_node->parent;
  for (i = 0; i <= new_node->num_keys; i++) {
    child = new_node->pointers[i];
    child->parent = new_node;
  }

  return insertIntoParent(root, old_node, k_prime, new_node);
}

node *insertIntoParent(node *root, node *left, int key, node *right) {
  int left_index;
  node *parent;

  parent = left->parent;

  if (parent == NULL)
    return insertIntoNewRoot(left, key, right);

  left_index = getLeftIndex(parent, left);

  if (parent->num_keys < order - 1)
    return insertIntoNode(root, parent, left_index, key, right);

  return insertIntoNodeAfterSplitting(root, parent, left_index, key, right);
}

node *insertIntoNewRoot(node *left, int key, node *right) {
  node *root = makeNode();
  root->keys[0] = key;
  root->pointers[0] = left;
  root->pointers[1] = right;
  root->num_keys++;
  root->parent = NULL;
  left->parent = root;
  right->parent = root;
  return root;
}

node *startNewTree(int key, record *pointer) {
  node *root = makeLeaf();
  root->keys[0] = key;
  root->pointers[0] = pointer;
  root->pointers[order - 1] = NULL;
  root->parent = NULL;
  root->num_keys++;
  return root;
}

node *insert(node *root, int key, int value) {
  record *record_pointer = NULL;
  node *leaf = NULL;

  record_pointer = find(root, key, false, NULL);
  if (record_pointer != NULL) {
    record_pointer->value = value;
    return root;
  }

  record_pointer = makeRecord(value);

  if (root == NULL)
    return startNewTree(key, record_pointer);

  leaf = findLeaf(root, key, false);

  if (leaf->num_keys < order - 1) {
    leaf = insertIntoLeaf(leaf, key, record_pointer);
    return root;
  }

  return insertIntoLeafAfterSplitting(root, leaf, key, record_pointer);
}

int main() {
  node *root;
  char instruction;

  root = NULL;

  root = insert(root, 5, 33);
  root = insert(root, 15, 21);
  root = insert(root, 25, 31);
  root = insert(root, 35, 41);
  root = insert(root, 45, 10);

  printTree(root);

  findAndPrint(root, 15, instruction = 'a');
}

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